This portal was launched in October 2011 by the US Foundation Center as a collaborative platform for philanthropic foundations that fund water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects around the world.
The centre piece is an interactive map showing which foundation funds what where. Currently projects from hundreds of foundations, such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, Howard G. Buffett Foundation and Skoll Foundation, are included. There are country profiles listing foundation grants, WASH indicators and historical OECD bilateral and multilateral grant data.
Besides the interactive map, the portal provides news and resources for grantmakers such as case studies, recommended reading and overview of key organisations and monitoring tools.
This site has a wealth of resources for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practitioners collected by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). Although the focus is on WASH resources for emergencies, many of the field tools and resources are also applicable in non-emergency situations. Of special interest are the WASH information, education materials (IEC) materials, which are made accessible by topic and regions.
This document sets out WaterAid’s framework for hygiene promotion and behaviour change in the countries where it works. It will also help organisations that work on hygiene in the context of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes. WaterAid has developed similar frameworks for sanitation and menstrual hygiene.
The framework’s structure is as follows:
- Part 1 gives a background to the framework
- Part 2 provides an overview of existing literature on hygiene promotion.
- Part 3 contains a brief history and overview of WaterAid’s hygiene-related work.
- Part 4 sets out key principles for country programmes on hygiene promotion, within the framework of a programme cycle.
- Part 5 outlines WaterAid’s minimum commitments for hygiene promotion work – these make up WaterAid’s policy on hygiene promotion
WaterAid, 2012. Hygiene framework. WaterAid, London, UK. 56 p. : 9 fig., 1 tab., photogr. Includes glossary and references. Available at: http://washurl.net/6fyfgy
This virtual library provides access to recent water and sanitation related publications produced by the United Nations system.
It is available in English www.unwaterlibrary.org and in Spanish www.bibliotecaonuagua.org but publications are accessible in different languages when available (including the 6 official UN languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish).
You can search by theme, region/country, basin, publisher, main purpose, target audience and publication type. You can combine these search criteria using the advanced search function, which also includes a language filter.
UNDCWS is an initiative of the United Nations Office to support the International Decade ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015/UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC) . It was developed with the support of the Municipality of Zaragoza in Spain and launched on the occasion of UN Day and the World Development Information Day on 24 October 2012.
Emptying truck Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Photo from publication.
This study was initiated and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to map the urban sanitation situation and assesses business and operating models for fecal sludge management in 30 cities across 10 countries in Africa and Asia, specifically focussing on the extraction and transportation market segments. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal in Africa and Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Malaysia and Viet Nam in South/Southeast Asia.
Using a common analytical framework, teams of local consultants in each of the ten countries gathered users’ perspectives through 13,000 household surveys and the collected data on the financial and business models of 150 emptying service providers. This report presents the comparative analysis based on these data from those surveys.
A majority of households (5.6 million households) in the 30 cities use on-site sanitation facilities. Households spend only a small percentage of their income, on average less 4%, on emptying services. About one third of surveyed households (2 million households) rely on manual emptying for sludge management.
The total available market for emptying services across the 10 cities is an estimated US$ 134 million.
Some regional trends were seen in the business operations between Africa and Asia:
- average truck capacity in Asia is just over 3 cubic metres and in Africa around 10 cubic metres – tracking the differing average pit volumes (2 cubic metres in Asia vs. 7 cubic metres in Africa)
- age of emptying trucks in Africa is 15 to over 30 years and in Asia between 5 to 10 years
- local assembly of trucks in done in Asia, while businesses in Africa import second hand trucks
- the cost of the trucks is three times higher in Africa than in Asia
- in Asia the operating expenses per truck are about US$ 11,000 and three times that much in Africa
- African businesses spend 76% of their expenses on variable charges such as fuel and maintenance, while their Asian counterparts spend most of their expenses (62%) on fixed costs – mainly staff salaries
- the single largest component of operating costs in Africa is fuel, making up 40% of expenses.
- the annual profit per truck in Africa is US$ 12,000 and is twice that seen in Asia, due to the higher empting fee charged (US$ 60 vs. US$ 28 in Asia) and the larger number of trips per day per truck in Africa.
A general finding was that the size of the fleet was the only factor that had a clear and strong correlation to profitability of the business – two or more trucks were needed to become profitable. There was also a lack of support systems necessary to create sustainable and profitable businesses.
The report presents several recommendations to realise the potential of the US$ 134 million market for emptying services, including:
- supporting the scaling of the single truck operators to become mid to large sized operations;
- better access to finance
- introducing transfer stations to save fuel costs and increasing truck efficiency
- regulating scheduled desludging
- local manufacture or assembly of trucks, especially in Africa
- a more effective supply chain for spare parts
- constructing safe dumping sites for sludge and sludge treatment plants
- enabling sludge reuse
Chowdhry, S. and Kone, D., 2012. Business analysis of fecal sludge management : emptying and transportation services in Africa and Asia. Seattle, WA, USA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 116 p.; 47 fig.; 22 tab. With bibliography p. 115-116
Available at: <http://www.washdoc.info/docsearch/title/179741>
Posted in Africa, East Asia & Pacific, Financing, On-site sanitation, Publications, South Asia, Wastewater treatment
Tagged Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, costs, faecal sludge management, household surveys, private sector
Menstrual hygiene is fundamental to the dignity and wellbeing of women and girls and an important part of the basic hygiene, sanitation and reproductive health services. However, menstruation is too often taboo, and has many negative cultural attitudes associated with it, including the idea that menstruating women and girls are ‘contaminated’, ‘dirty’ and ‘impure’.
This resource kit provides modules and toolkits on improving menstrual hygiene for women and girls in lower and middle-income countries. It covers key aspects of menstrual hygiene in different settings, including communities, schools and emergencies.
The resource kit brings together examples of good menstrual hygiene practice from around the world.
The nine modules and accompanying toolkits, cover the following topics:
- menstrual hygiene – the basics
- menstrual hygiene – getting started
- menstrual hygiene – sanitary protection materials and disposal
- working with communities on menstrual hygiene
- working with schools on menstrual hygiene
- working in emergencies on menstrual hygiene
- supporting girls and women in vulnerable, marginalised or special circumstances
- menstrual hygiene in the workplace
- research, monitoring and advocacy
House, S., Mahon, T. and Cavill, S., 2012. Menstrual hygiene matters : a resource for improving menstrual hygiene around the world. [online] London, UK: WaterAid. 347 p.; ill.; tab.; fig.; boxes
Available at: <http://washurl.net/5iyh2e>